~ Bluetooth Technology

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10 Benefits Of Bluetooth

Below, are 10 benefits and reasons to use Bluetooth
technology.

1.  Wireless
As you probably already know, there are many benefits
and advantages to using wireless devices.  Along with
improving safety as a result of eliminating wires
you don't need, wireless also offers you plenty of
other advantages.  When traveling with your laptop
or other wireless devices, you'll no longer have to
worry about bringing connection cables.

2.  Bluetooth is actually inexpensive
The technology of Bluetooth is cheap for companies
to implement, which results in lower costs for the
company.  These savings are then passed from the
company on to you.

3.  Bluetooth is automatic
Bluetooth doesn't have you set up a connection or
push any buttons.  When two or more devices enter
a range of up to 30 feet of each other, they will
automatically begin to communicate without you
having to do anything. 

4.  Standardized protocol
Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that
a high level of compatibility among devices is
guaranteed.  Bluetooth will connect devices to
each other, even if they aren't the same model.

5.  Low interference
Bluetooth devices almost always avoid interference
from other wireless devices.  Bluetooth uses a
technique known as frequency hopping, and also
low power wireless signals.

6.  Low energy consumption
As a result of Bluetooth using low power signals,
the technology requires very little energy and will
use less battery or electrical power as a result.
This is an excellent benefit for mobile devices,
as Bluetooth won't drain the battery.

7.  Sharing voice and data
The standard for Bluetooth will allow compatible
devices to share data and voice communications.
This is great for mobile phones and headsets, as
Bluetooth simplifies driving and talking on your
cell phone.

8.  Instant PAN (Personal Area Network)
You can connect up to seven Bluetooth devices to
each other within a range of up to 30 feet, forming
a piconet or PAN.  For a single room, you can
also set up multiple piconets.

9.  Upgradeable
Upgradeable is the standard for Bluetooth.  There
are newer versions of Bluetooth in the works,
which offer many new advantages and backward
compatible with older versions.

10.  The technology stays
Bluetooth technology is a world wide, universal
wireless standard.  With it being as popular as
it is, you can count on it being around for years
to come.  As more and more devices start to use
Bluetooth technology, more manufacturers will be
eager to make their products compatible.  A chain
reaction will occur, making Bluetooth the standard
for cutting edge wireless.


Advantages And Disadvantages

Bluetooth has a lot to offer with an increasingly
difficult market place.  Bluetooth helps to bring
with it the promise of freedom from the cables and
simplicity in networking that has yet to be matched
by LAN (Local Area Network).

In the key marketplace, of wireless and handheld
devices, the closest competitor to Bluetooth is
infrared.  Infrared holds many key features,
although the line of sight it provides doesn't go
through walls or through obstacles like that of the
Bluetooth technology.

Unlike infrared, Bluetooth isn't a line of sight and
it provides ranges of up to 100 meters.  Bluetooth
is also low power and low processing with an
overhead protocol.  What this means, is that it's
ideal for integration into small battery powered
devices.  To put it short, the applications with
Bluetooth are virtually endless. 

Disadvantages
Bluetooth has several positive features and one
would be extremely hard pressed to find downsides
when given the current competition.  The only real
downsides are the data rate and security.  Infrared
can have data rates of up to 4 MBps, which provides
very fast rates for data transfer, while Bluetooth
only offers 1 MBps.

For this very reason, infrared has yet to be
dispensed with completely and is considered by
many to be the complimentary technology to that
of Bluetooth.  Infrared has inherent security due
to its line of sight. 

The greater range and radio frequency (RF) of
Bluetooth make it much more open to interception and
attack.  For this reason, security is a very key
aspect to the Bluetooth specification.

Although there are very few disadvantages, Bluetooth
still remains the best for short range wireless
technology.  Those who have tried it love it, and
they know for a fact that Bluetooth will be
around for years to come.



Bluetooth Technical Operations

Bluetooth is a high speed, low powered wireless link
technology that's designed to connect phones or other
portable equipment together with little to no work
required by the user.  Unlike infrared, Bluetooth
doesn't require line of site positioning to work.

Current prototype circuits are contained on a board
that is 0.9 cm square, with a much smaller circuit
board being developed. 

When one Bluetooth device comes in contact with
another, they will automatically exchange addresses
and details of capability.  Then, they can establish
a 1 MB link with security that they will use as
required.  The protocols involved with handle both
data and voice, with a very flexible topography.

The technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny,
non expensive short range tranceivers into the
devices available today.  The radio operates on the
2.45 GHz frequency band, and supports up to 721
KBps, along with three voice channels. 

Each devices offers a unique 48 bit address from
the IEEE 802 standard, with the connections being
point to point or multipoint. The max range is
10 meters, although it can be extended to 100
meters by increasing the power.  The devices are
also protected from radio interference by changing
their frequencies, also known as frequency hopping.

What's important, is the fact that Bluetooth
devices won't drain battery life.  The specification
targets power consumption of the device, limiting
the drain on the battery.  The radio chip will
consume only 0.3mA in stand by mode, which is less
than 5% of the power that standard phones use.

Bluetooth will also guarantee security at the bit
level.  The authentification is controlled by the
user via a 128 bit key.  The radio signals can
be coded with anything up to 128 bit.  With the
frequency hopping, Bluetooth is already very
hard to listen into.

The baseband protocol is a combination of both
circuit and packet switches.  Slots can be reserved
for synchronous packets as well.  Each packet
will be transmitted in a different hop frequency.
Normally, a packet covers a single slot although
it can be extended to cover up to five slots.

Bluetooth can also support data channels of up to
three simultaneous voice channels.  Therefore,
it's possible to transfer the data while you talk
at the same time.  Each individual voice channel
will support 64 KB.

From a technical standpoint, Bluetooth is very
different indeed.  It's the best wireless method
in the world, surpassing even infrared.  For
communication on the go, Bluetooth is indeed
very hard to compete with.


Bluetooth And Apple

The new Apple powerbook G4 are among the first
computers to offer Bluetooth technology 2.0+EDR.
The 2.0+EDR technology, which still backwards
compatible with 1.0, is up to three times faster
than previous versions, offering maximum data rate
transfers of up to 3 MBps.  Being the first company
to certify a system with 2.0+EDR, Apple continues
to make great use of the Bluetooth technology.

Full support
In addition to the powerbook G4 portables, there
are other Bluetooth enabled computers available
from Apple, including the iBook, iMac G5, eMac,
and the Power Mac G5. 

Making life easier
When you turn the Bluetooth feature on, your Mac
can easily perform a file transfer or even a
synchronization.  From the Bluetooth selection
menu, you can choose to either send a file or
browse devices, quickly and easily.  Or, you can
click the sync button in iSync to update your
cell phone or Palm OS handheld. 

The Mac and GSM/GPRS mobile phone with Bluetooth
work to make each other more useful.  By using
iSync, you can keep your phone updated without
having to type any info, as you can keep the
information in the more manageable address book
on your Mac instead. 

You can also use your Bluetooth enabled Mac to
print documents and digital images to select a
printer that also supports the technology of
Bluetooth.  Or, you can also use a headset to
talk to your friends during an iChat session.

Your Mac also has the ability to use Bluetooth
technology to communicate with your Palm OS
handheld.  This way, you can perform a HotSync
operation without using any cables.  You can also
send your business card or calendar events directly
to someone else's handheld usingthe technology of
Bluetooth. 

The implementation of Bluetooth by Apple is the
latest in a series of moves that have caused
great shift in the computer industry.  Apple
established USB as the standard interface with
the launching of the first Mac back in 1998.

Since then, Apple established the 802.11 wireless
standard of networking with the launch of the
iBook and AirPort in 1999.  During 2003, Apple
launched AirPort Extreme, which was based on
the new 802.11g high speed technology of wireless.

Now, Bluetooth helps to further strengthen the
dominant position of the Mac in wireless
communications, helping to preserve Apple's
reputation for being the first to market with
innovative technology that integrates right into
the operating system.


Bluetooth And Infared

With new electrical devices being produced every day,
the problem of connecting things is becoming more
and more complex in nature.  The system that comprises
computers and other electronics makes use of varieties
of wires, cables, etc. 

These parts will communicate through light beams,
lasers, radio signals, and infrared.  The problem
however, is the devices and technology is often the
connection between each component.  Therefore, most
electronic systems aren't used to their full extent
due to the problems and imperfections.

To help simplify things, a solution was created -
the solution of Bluetooth.  Bluetooth is wireless
and automatic, offering users a variety of features
that have simplified the art of connection.  Bluetooth
has revolutionized the standard methods of connecting
things to enabling almost anything to be connected
to a single system.

Aside from Bluetooth, there are other ways of
connecting wireless devices.  One example of such
is the IR or infrared.  Infrared allows low frequency
light waves to transmit signals to another component.
This technology is easy to create and the cost of
putting the IR device into a system is rather low.

Infrared technology is a one to one process.  Due
to the limitation, you may only send signals from one
device to another, similar to a television set and
remote control.  You can only transmit signals
between the two although not with a seperate system.

Aside from the fact that these two natures of
infrared are obstacles to acquiring results, these
same qualities have worked in advantage to the
connection.  Infrared devices need to be lined up
directly, meaning too little interference can occur
between the transmitters and receivers.

The technology behind Bluetooth works by transmitting
signals through low frequency radio signals.  The
path of communication is working on 2.45 GHz, which
is the same frequency band used in ISM devices.



Bluetooth Applications

With Bluetooth being very popular with wireless, it's
no wonder there are many applications available for
the technology.  Below, you'll find the applications
for Bluetooth.

1.  Wireless networking between laptops and desktop
computers, or desktops that are in a confined space
and little bandwidth is needed.

2.  Peripherals such as mice, keyboards, and printers.

3.  Cell phones with Bluetooth technology have been
sold in large numbers, as they are able to connect to
computers, PDAs (Personal Data Assistant), and various
other devices.  The standard also includes the
support for more powerful and longer range devices.

4.  The transfer of files, images and MP3, between
mobile phones.

5.  Certain MP3 players and digital cameras to
transfer files to and from computers.

6.  Bluetooth technology headsets for smart phones
and cell phones.

7.  Data logging equipment that transmits data to
a computer via Bluetooth technology.

8.  Sony Playstation 3 and Nintendo Revolution will
both use Bluetooth technology for their wireless
controllers. 

For Bluetooth, there are literally hundreds of
different applications and devices available for you
to use or purchase.  As you may already know,
Bluetooth is the most popular wireless technology
in the world.  It's very reliable, very dependable,
and very hard to crack into.

There are many other applications for Bluetooth in
development now, many of which plan to take the
wireless age to the next level.  Video game systems
are using Bluetooth technology as well, for their
wireless controllers.  This is great news for gaming
fans, as Bluetooth offers the best in wireless
data transmission.

If your curious about applications for Bluetooth
that are still in development, you can search on
the internet.  You can find all sorts of information,
especially when it comes to Bluetooth.  As the
future arrives, you can expect Bluetooth to bring
bigger and better things.



Bluetooth Basics

The technology of Bluetooth wireless is a short
range communications method intended to replace
the cables that connect portable or fixed devices
while maintaining the highest levels of security.

The key features offered by Bluetooth include
low power and low cost.  The specification in
Bluetooth defines a uniform structure for a wide
range of devices to communicate and connect with
one another.

The technology behind Bluetooth has achieved
global satisfaction such as enabled devices, almost
everywhere in the world.  Bluetooth devices will
connect and communicate without wires through
short range and networks known as piconets.

Each device will simultaneously communicate with
up to seven other devices within a single piconet,
meaning that each device can also belong to
several piconets simultaneously.  The piconets
are dynamically established as Bluetooth enabled
devices enter and leave the proximity of radio.

A fundamental to Bluetooth strength is the
ability to handle both data and voice transmissions
simultaneously.  This will enable users to enjoy
varieties of innovative solutions such as hands
free talking, printing and fax capabilities,
and other applications.

Specifications
Unlike other standards of wireless, the Bluetooth
specification gives product developers both a
link layer and application layer definitions,
which will help support data and voice applications.

Spectrum
The Bluetooth technology operates in the industrial
and scientific band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a
spread spectrum, frequency hopping signal. 

Interference
The adaptive frequency hopping of Bluetooth
technology was designed to reduce interference
between wireless technologies that share the 2.4
GHz spectrum.  Adaptive frequency hopping (AFH)
works well within the spectrum to take full
advantage of the frequency available.

AFH hopping allows for more efficient transmission
within the spectrum, which provides users with
greater performance even if they are using other
technologies along with Bluetooth.  


Bluetooth Definition

Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low
power radio communications to wireless phones,
computers, and other network wireless devices over
short distances.  The name Bluetooth is actually
borrowed from Harald Bluetooth, a Denmark king
more than 1,000 years ago.

The technology of Bluetooth was primarily designed
to support simple wireless networking of devices
and peripherals, which includes cell phones, PDAs,
and wireless headsets.  The wireless signals that
are transmitted by Bluetooth cover short distances
of up to 30 feet, generally communicating less
than 1 MPps (Mega Byte per second).

The networks of Bluetooth feature dynamic topology
called PAN or a piconet.  The piconets contain a
minumum of two and a maximum of eight peer devices.
The devices will communicate using protocols that
are part of the specification. 

Even though the Bluetooth standard will utilize
the same 2.4 GHz range as 802.11b and 802.11g,
the technology isn't suitable for a Wi-Fi
replacement.  When compared to Wi-Fi, Bluetooth
is much slower, limited in range, and actually
supports less devices.

For short range devices, Bluetooth is rapidly
becoming the best.  The technology is more popular
with cell phones, as Bluetooth headsets are the
way to go these days.  To use Bluetooth, your
cell phone will need to have it enabled, or an
infared device somewhere on the phone.

Upcoming devices are utilizing Bluetooth as well,
such as PS3 and the Nintendo Revolution.  The
wireless controllers will be Bluetooth enabled,
which will give players the cutting edge.

If you own a cell phone or other wireless device,
you should look into Bluetooth.  The technology
is nothing short of spectacular, making it
something that will be around for years and
years to come.  As technology gets bigger and
bigger, you can expect Bluetooth to advance
as well.


Bluetooth Glossary

Below, you'll find a list of the most used terms in
Bluetooth technology.  They can serve as a look up,
or to help you learn more about Bluetooth terms in
general.

2 in 1 handset
The situation where a subscriber's handset is acting
as a remote handset to a base unit that provides a
network connection.

3G
Third generation, referring to the next generation
of digital phone technology.

802.11 WLAN
A wireless LAN specification defined by the IEEE.

Access code
Each base band packet will start with an access code,
which can be one of 3 types - CAC, DAC, and IAC.

ACK
Acknowledge.

ACL
Asynchronous Connectionless Link.  This is one of the
two types of data links that are defined for Bluetooth.

ACO
Authenticated Ciphering Offset.

Active mode
During the active mode, the unit will actively
participate on the channel.  The master will schedule
the transmission based on traffic demands from the
different slaves.

AP
Access point.

Authentification
The process of verifying who is at the opposite end
of the link. 

Authentification device
A device whose identity has been verified during the
lifetime of the current link based on the
authentification procedure.

Baseband
This describes the specification of the digital
signal processing aspect of the hardware - the
controller - which carries out the baseband
protocols.

BB
Abreviation of baseband.

BD
Bluetooth device.

BER
Bit Error Rate.

The above is more of an intro to the terms that are
used with Bluetooth.  Bluetooth currently has hundreds
of devices, making it the best wireless solution in
the world.  With more coming out every day, you can
bet that Bluetooth will be around for many years to
come.

If you are new to Bluetooth, the terms used can be
very helpful.  There are hundreds of glossary terms
that apply to Bluetooth, many of which describe
shortcuts to common terms.  You can learn a lot by
reading over the meanings, especially if you have
never used Bluetooth technology before.

Those of you who have experience with Bluetooth,
can look over the glossary of terms to brush up
on your knowledge or just check out what an unfamiliar
term actually means.  Nothing is complicated with
the meanings, although they make take some getting
used to.

Once you have been around Bluetooth for a while,
you'll find yourself right at home with the terms
and meanings to the technology.  All you need to do
is play around with it, and read books or manuals
whenever you get the chance.  Before you know it,
you'll be a professional in the vast world of
Bluetooth wireless.


Bluetooth In Action

In the United States, Bluetooth gets absolutely no
respect.  It is however, becoming more and more
common in notebooks, PDAs, and especially cell
phones.  Bluetooth will provide wireless users a
way to transmit small amounts of data over short
distances.

Now, Bluetooth is facing stiff competition from
new wireless technology.  Referred to as UWB or
Ultra Wideband, it promises data transfer of up
to 480 MB a second - while most current Bluetooth
devices transfer data up to 721 KB a second.

For the time being, Bluetooth devices are surely
cropping up.  Below, we will look at some of
the accessories offered with Bluetooth technology.

Talking to the dashboard
When pairing it with a cell phone, the CCM Blue
Warrior car kit becomes a great speaker phone that
plugs into the power adapter of your vehicle.  The
noise cancelling microphone will reduce background
noise efficiently, with the large buttons making
adjusting the speaker volume a snap.  Although
the Blue Warrior is far from sexy or sleek, it's
very practical.

Tiny tuning box
Part MP3 player and part hands free phone, the
compact and lightweight Sony HBM-30 is an attractive
gadget that lets you accept calls with minimal
interruption of your tunes.  When you get an incoming
call it will automatically pause your music, then
you speak into the built in microphone that you
can wear around your neck or clip to your clothes.

The pen
With Nokia's SU-1B digital pen, you can doodle and
make hand written notes in ink on a special pad
then transmit them from the pad to your Bluetooth
phone.  Being an alternative to typing on a cell
phone keypad, the pen is very handy, although a
pricey tool from MMS fans.

Snapshots
If you want to make slide shows with your camera
photos, the Nokia SU-2 image viewer will let you
disply your pictures on a TV or projector.  Simply
hook this square gray device to your TV's input
with the built in cable, then beam the pictures
to the SU-2 from your Bluetooth enabled phone and
the photo fest will begin.

This device is a snap to set up and use, although
it displays resolutions of up to 640 by 480.  If
you have a newer phone that takes high resolution
photos, you won't be able to use the Nokia SU-2
image viewer. 

Keep in mind, the 640 by 480 pixel photos will
appear blocky on TV screens, no matter what you
do.  If your phone can send batches of photos, you
can create a slide show - although Nokia claims
you can use sequentially beamed shots as well.


Bluetooth Operation

The networking standards of Bluetooth will transmit
data via low power radio frequency.  Bluetooth
communicates on a 2.45 GHz frequency.  This very
band of frequency has been set aside by international
agreement for the use of industrial and medical
devices.

Many devices that you already known and use take
advantage of this frequency band.  Garage door
openers, baby monitors, and the next generation of
mobile phones all use this frequency within the ISM
band.  Ensuring that Bluetooth and the other
devices don't interfere with each other is a crucial
part of the design process.

One of the ways Bluetooth will avoid interfering
with other electronic devices is by sending out
weak signals of around 1 mw.  In comparison, even
the most powerful of cell phones can transmit a
signal of 3 watts. 

The low power signals will limit the range of a
Bluetooth device to around 32 feet, which cut the
chances of interference between your computer and
other electronic devices.  Even though it has low
power, Bluetooth doesn't require a line of sight
between the communicating devices.  The walls in
your home won't stop the signal, making it great
for rooms throughout the house.

Bluetooth can connect 8 devices at the same time.
With each of those devices on the same radius,
you may think they would interfere with each
other, although it's very unlikely.  Bluetooth
utilizes a technique known as low frequency
hopping, which makes it harder for more than
one device to transmit on the same frequency
at the same time.

With this technique, a device will use 79
individual, randomly chosen frequencies within
a designated range, which change from one another
on a regular basis. 

In the case of Bluetooth, the transmitters will
change frequency 1,600 times or more every
second, meaning that more devices can make full
use of the radio spectrum.  Since every
transmitter of Bluetooth will use spread spectrum
automatically, it's very unlikely that two
transmitters will be on the same frequency at the
exact same time.

When the Bluetooth devices come within close range
of each other, an electronic conversation will
occur to determine whether or not they have
data to share or whether one needs to take total
control.  The user doesn't have any buttons to
press or commands to give - as the conversation
will occur automatically.

Once the conversation has occured, the devices
will form a network.  Bluetooth devices will
create a PAN (Personal Area Network) or piconet
that may fill a room.  Once the piconet has been
established, the devices will randomly hop in
frequencies.


Bluetooth Profiles

The profile found in Bluetooth will describe how
the technology is used.  Profiles can be best
described as vertical slices through the protocol
stack.  It will define options in each protocol
that are mandatory for the profile.

The profile will also define the parameter ranges
for each protocol.  The concept of the profile is
used to decrease the risk of interoperability
problems between the different products.  These
profiles won't normally define any additions to
the Bluetooth specification, which is why you can
add new profiles where you need them.  The
Bluetooth underlying technology is the same, only
the specific method that it's used is defined.

Generally speaking, all profiles of Bluetooth are
based on the GAP (Generic Access Profile).  There
are 9 profiles that fall in the GAP category, and
they are below:  
    1.  AVRCP - Audio/Video Remote Control
Profile
    2.  ESDP - Extended Service Discovery Profile
    3.  CIP - Common ISDN Access Profile
    4.  PAN - Public Area Network Profile
    5.  HCRP - Hardcopy Cable Replacement
Profile
    6.  GAVDP - Generic Audio/Visual Distribution
Profile
    7.  A2DP - Advanced Audio Distribution Profile
    8.  VDP - Video Distribution Profile
    9.  HID - Human Interface Device Profile

To put it another way, usage models will describe
Bluetooth device applications and the associated
profiles that are used.  The usage model focuses
mainly on three categories - voice/data access points,
peripheral interconnects, and PAN (Personal Area
Networking).

The voice and data access points involve connecting
computing devices to communicating devices through
a wireless link. This way, data can be transferred
in a wireless manor, without the need of cables or
other types of connectivity.

PAN  is another very important usage model with
strong appeal to business customers.  Bluetooth
networks are easy to set up in virtually any type
of environment.  An example would be meeting
others at a trade show.

Instead of having contact information beamed via
infrared, business cards can quickly and easily be
transferred via Bluetooth wireless.  The fact is
that many documents can be exchanged this very
same way - making the uses and possibilities
virtually endless.

The Bluetooth profile is very important to the
specification, as it enables you to do so much
more.  You can use peripherals and devices with
the profiles, and virtually anything else that you
decide.

As Bluetooth expands and gets bigger and better,
you can count on the profiles to expand and get
even more functions.  If you have experience with
Bluetooth profiles, you should know exactly what
they are and what you can do with them.  If not,
all you need is a Bluetooth device - and a vivid
imagination.

Bluetooth Security

These days, all communication technology faces the
issue of privacy and identity theft, with Bluetooth
being no exception.  Almost everyone knows that email
services and networks require security.  What users
of Bluetooth need to realize is that Bluetooth also
requires security measures as well.

The good news for Bluetooth users is that the
security scares, like most scares, are normally over
dramatized and blown entirely out of proportion.  The
truth being told, these issues are easy to manage,
with various measures already in place to provide
security for Bluetooth technology.

It's true that there has been some Bluetooth phones
that have been hacked into.  Most devices that are
hacked into are normally those that don't have any
type of security at all.

According to Bluetooth specialists, in order to hack
into a Bluetooth device, the hacker must:
    1.  Force two paired devices to break their
connection.
    2.  Steal the packets that are used to
resend the pin.
    3.  Decode the pin.

Of course, the hacker must also be within range of
the device, and using very expensive developer type
equipment.  Most specialists recommend that you
have a longer pin, with 8 digits being recommended.

Fundamentals of security
The "pairing process" is one of the most basic levels
of security for Bluetooth devices.  Pairing, is
two or more Bluetooth devices that recognize each
other by the profiles they share - in most cases
they both must enter the same pin.

The core specifications for Bluetooth use an
encryption algorithm, which is completely and entirely
secure.  Once the devices pair with each other,
they too become entirely secure.

Until they have successfully paired, the Bluetooth
devices won't communicate with each other.  Due to
this pairing process and the fact that it is short
range - Bluetooth technology is considered to be
secure.

As the news has indicated, experienced hackers
have developed ways to get around this level of
basic security.  There are ways to get around this
threat, as you can install software to prevent
hackers from getting in.

With Bluetooth becoming more and more popular, it's
really no wonder that security is always in
question.  As Bluetooth gets bigger and better,
security will always be something that no one
really takes lightly.

If you've been concerned about Bluetooth security
in the past, rest assured that newer devices will
offer bigger and better security.  Preventing
hackers from getting in is something every owner
is concerned about - and the manufacturer's are
very aware.

Bluetooth Specifications

Below, you'll find several specifications for the
well known Bluetooth:

1.  Throughout the United States and even Europe,
the range of frequency is 2,400 - 2,483.5 MHZ, with
79 1-MHz RF (radio frequency) channels.  The
frequency range in Japan is 2,472 to 2,497 MHz with
23 1-MHz RF channels.

2.  A data channel of Bluetooth randomly hops 1,600
times per second between the 79 RF channels.

3.  Each Bluetooth channel is divided into time
slots, with each one being 625 microseconds long.

4.  A Bluetooth piconet has one master and up to
seven slaves.  The master will transmit in even
time slots, while the slaves will transmit in odd
time slots.

5.  The data in a single packet can be up to 2,745
bits in length.

6.  Currently, there are two types of data transfer
between devices - SCO (synchronous connection
oriented) and ACL (asynchronous connectionless).

7.  In a Bluetooth piconet, there can be up to
three SCO links containing 64,000 bits per second
with each one.  To help avoid collision and timing
problems, the links of the SCO will use reserved
slots set up by the master.

8.  A master can support up to three SCO links
with either one, two, or even three slaves.

9.  The slots not reserved for the SCO links can
be used for ACL links.

10.  A single master and slave can have one ACL
link.

11.  ACL is either master to one slave (point to
point) or it broadcasts to all of the slaves.

12.  The ACL slaves will only transmit when it has
been requested by the master.  If the master doesn't
make the request, the ACL slaves won't transmit
anything at all.



Bluetooth Technology Intro

The technology of Bluetooth is nothing new, but in
many respects it can still seem like more of a buzz
word rather than an accepted technology.  You may
see the ads for Bluetooth enabled devices, although
you still may be wondering what it is.

Capabilities
The Bluetooth definition is a wireless technology
that is a worldwide specification for a small form
factor, low cost solution that will provide link
between mobile devices and other electronic
devices.

Similiar to 802.11 b/g wireless and many cordless
telephone systems, Bluetooth operates on 2.4 GHz
radio signals.  The 2.4 GHz band seems to be a bit
crowded, with interferences between the devices a
bit hard to avoid.  Telephones are now being offered
at the 5.8 GHz frequency band, which will help to
remedy this.

The technical specifications of Bluetooth will
indicate a maximum transfer rate of 723 kbps with
a range of 65 - 328 feet, all depending on the
class of that particular device.  The speed is a
fraction of what is offered by wireless standards,
so it's obvious that Bluetooth doesn't really
pose a threat to replacing your wireless network.

Applications
There are numerous products that will take advantage
of Bluetooth capabilities, such as laptops, PDAs,
headphones, and even wireless printer adapters.

A lot of laptops out there will include an onboard
Bluetooth adapter which allows the system to
connect to any Bluetooth device right out of the
box.  For computers that don't have an adaptor
built right in, there are several USB adaptors
available for Bluetooth.

For an awesome technology, Bluetooth is actually
hard to compete with.  For short range wireless,
Bluetooth is easily one of the best.  The standard
for Bluetooth keeps getting better and better,
making it a wireless technology that will be around
for years and years to come.


Bluetooth Versions

Version 1.1 and earlier
Since the technology of Bluetooth was introduced in
1998, several specification versions have been
released.  Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had too many issues
and problems for manufacturers to develop devices
for Bluetooth.  The main issue was the lack of
communication among the devices.

The core specification version 1.1 is the first
successful operating version of Bluetooth.  Version
1.1 corrected a majority of the bugs and problems
found in earlier versions.

Version 1.2
Many of the newer Bluetooth devices, such as the
newer cell phones are being sold with the newer
Bluetooth version 1.2.  This version offers backward
compatability with Bluetooth 1.1, faster transmission
speeds, received signal strength, and a host
controller interface (HCI) support for 3 wire UART.

Bluetooth version 2.0
It's true that there may be multiple communication
technologies, although they all share one common
trait - faster is better.  Bluetooth specialists
realized this, and therefore worked on improving
the speeds of version 1.2.  The newest version,
version 2.0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) was
accounced in 2004 and became available in late
2005.

Version 2.0 delivers data transfer rates of up
to three times that of the original version of
Bluetooth.  Version 2.0 also provides enhanced
connectivity.  With Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, you'll
be able to run more devices at the same time -
with more efficiency.

Computers and even computer related devices are
expected to be some of the first devices to
encorporate Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, followed of
course by audio and imaging devices. 

Version 2.0 is backward compatible with previous
versions, three times faster, and offers an
enhanced data rate of 2.1 MB a second.  It also
offers broadcast and multicast support, along
with a further enhanced bit error rate
performance, making it the best Bluetooth has
ever seen.


Bluetooth Wireless Networking

Bluetooth technology offers three different types
of defined ranges, based on output ranges.  Class
1 devices are the most powerful, as they can have
up to 100 mW of power, with a regular antenna
giving them a range of around 130 - 330 feet.

The class 2 devices are lower power, offering up
to 2.5 mW of power. A regular antenna will give
them a range of around 50 - 100 feet.  Class 3
devices use even less power, up to 1 mW of power
to be exact.  With a regular antenna, they will
have a range of around 16 - 33 feet.

Even though you may not realize it, Bluetooth
wireless technology has never been intended for
anything other than short distance types of
communication. With Bluetooth wireless, the short
range is actually a benefit.

For one, the short range will reduce the change of
interference between your devices and those that
belong to others who are nearby.  Overall, this
is a basic type of security, designed to protect
you and your devices.

Secondly, the lower power used for short range
means a longer battery life.  Most Bluetooth
devices will get their power from a battery,
meaning that anything you can do to lengthen the
battery life is very important.

The wireless networking offered by Bluetooth is
actually among the best, even though it uses
short range communication.  Bluetooth is used
with wireless controllers, the internet, and
even wireless headsets.

For the best in short range technology, Bluetooth
is extremely hard to beat.  If you've never tried
Bluetooth before, now is the time.  It's the best
with wireless networking, especially for those
who enjoy hands free talking on their cell phone.


Choosing A Bluetooth Headset

Creating a good wireless headset for Bluetooth is
actually difficult to do.  The regular wired headsets
are easy to design - with ranging styles. 

Bluetooth headsets can never be as small or as light
as wired headsets, simply because it needs to include
the battery and extra functions. This extra size
will impact how the headset mounts on or around
your ears.

Comfort
There seems to be two main styles of headsets for
Bluetooth.  Some are held into place with a loop
around the ear.  These styles are normally more
comfortable, although they may be less secure.  The
others are held in place by being jammed into
your ear - and usually prove to be less comfortable.

Factors to consider

Cost
The cost is an obvious issue, something that you
really need to think about.

Ergonomics
    1.  Check to see if the device is easy to
quickly and conveniently put on your ear then take
it off again.
    2.  Are the control buttons on the headset
easy to use?
    3.  The headset should be comfortable to
wear for long phone calls.
    4.  Can you use it with a pair of glasses?
    5.  Check to see if you can wear it with
either ear.
    6.  When you aren't wearing it, you'll
need to se how you would carry it with you.
    7.  The weight is important as well, as you
don't want something that has the risk of falling
off.

Ease of use.
    1.  The commands and controls should be
easy to remember.
    2.  The volume level should be easy to
adjust.
    3.  The unit should turn on quickly.
    4.  The manual should be very well written
and easy for you to understand.
    5.  There should be a support number for
you to call if you should experience any types of
problems.

Features   
    1.  You'll need to know about the battery,
the talk time, type, and how to tell when it is
going dead or fully charged.
    2.  How many devices can the unit be paired
with?
    3. Compatability is also important, as
well as the warranty period.
    4.  Check the sound quality for both
sending and receiving audio.
    5.  What type of range does the headset offer
you?

Other important capabilities include voice tags,
last number redial, tranfer calls, 3 way calling,
link to other phones, call reject, and mute.  You'll
also want to note if it looks attractive, and if
it's too big or too small.


Connecting Many With Bluetooth

Constantly evolving, the technology of Bluetooth
started off as a basic wireless connection standard
but has since then been adapted and proven with many
different uses and functions.

A good example is Bluetooth for cell phones.  It
enables mobile users to connect to their hands free
headset without using wires.  Bluetooth technology
will also allow mobile phone users to connect
with their hands free kit as well.

Another handy use of Bluetooth is file sharing.  It
allows the sharing of files between two cell phones,
between a cell phone and computer, which makes the
sharing of files a snap.  If you have a cell phone
and computer, you can easily transfer data between
the two.

Say for example you wanted to put an MP3 on your
phone from your computer you could do it easily
with Bluetooth.  All you would need is a Bluetooth
adapter for your computer.  It doesn't stop with the
swapping of files either,as you can use your computer
and phone to synchronise phone books, send SMS messages,
and much more.

Although Bluetooth may be dandy for cell phones,
it also comes in handy for the home office as well.
Utilizing Bluetooth is a great way to set up a
home office - two computers, a printer, and even a
scanner.  They all can be connected using Bluetooth
technology with effective ranges of up to 10 meters.

The technology and devices of Bluetooth will be
around for years and years to come.  As years go
by, Bluetooth will provide even better wireless
solutions for different applications.  Even though
Bluetooth has a short range, it has that short
range for a reason.  Bluetooth is easily the best
in wireless technology - which it continues to
prove time and time again.

Introduction To Bluetooth

Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless
connections to become easy to use so even those who
are new to wireless can use them.  Version 1.1 of
Bluetooth describes a low power, short range wireless
networking technology that uses radio waves to send
data at rates up to 720 kilobits a second.

The specification for Bluetooth provides for different
classes of radio that allow transmission ranges of
up to 100 meters by boosting the radio power.  The
technology of Bluetooth isn't limited to line of
sight transmission since it uses directional waves
that are capable of transmitting through many
obstructions.

Bluetooth is an industry standard communication of
wireless, meaning that it enables the connection
of other devices as well, such as cell phones,
computers, digital cameras, and other types of
electronic devices.  The specification of Bluetooth
defines a radio system and a "stack" of protocol
layers and profiles.  The highest layer is the
application layer, while the lowest layer is the
radio.

The wireless technology of Bluetooth is positioned
to revolutionize the personal connectivity market
by providing freedom from inconvenient fixed type
lines. 

The specification for Bluetooth eliminates the need
for cables by providing a small form factor, low
cost wireless solution that will link computers,
cell phones, and other electronics.  Bluetooth
also allows users to connect many ranges of devices
quickly and easily and expands communications
capabilities as well.

The size of the Bluetooth radio is amazing, as a
Bluetooth radio can be built into one or two very
small microchips then integrated into any electronic
device where wireless operations would be an
advantage.

Bluetooth also offers a robust link, which ensures
that normal operating circumstances are not
interrupted by interference from other signals
that are operating in the same frequency band.

Also known for its worldwide operation, Bluetooth
radio operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, which
is license free and available to any type of
radio system in the world.  No matter where you
are in the world, you count on Bluetooth to work.

Security is also important.  Offering advanced
security mechanisms, Bluetooth ensures a high level
of security.  Therefore, authentification will
prevent unauthorized acess to important data and
make it very difficult to listen in.

Bluetooth also boasts power optimization.  The radio
is power friendly and the software for Bluetooth
is very configurable, limiting the power consumption
of equipment.  The radio itself only consumes a
small amount of power from a cellular phone.


Key Learning Points Of Bluetooth

Bluetooth is easily the best in wireless handheld
technology.  When it comes to learning, Bluetooth
can get quite complicated.  To help you, you'll find
the key learning points of Bluetooth below:

    1.  Bluetooth is an energy efficient, low
overhead communication protocol that's ideal for
interdevice communications.
    2.  Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require
a line of sight.
    3.  Depending on the implementation, Bluetooth
can have a range of up to 100 meters.
    4.  The specification of Bluetooth consists of
a Foundation Profile Document and a Foundation Core
Document.
    5.  The protocol stack for Bluetooth consists
of core protocols, cable protocols, and even adapted
protocols.
    6.  The transmitter operates around the 2.4
GHz frequency band.
    7.  The data channel will change frequency, or
hops, 1,600 times in a second, between the 79 allocated
channels in the ISM band.
    8.  Bluetooth utilizes a spread spectrum
frequency hopping RF characteristic to ensure that
independant networking operates when the other
devices are in range.
    9.  A piconet is formed when one or more
devices open up a channel of communication.
    10.  A piconet can have a master and up to
seven slaves.
    11.  Communication of the interdevice is
based on the concepts of channels.
    12.  All Bluetooth devices are capable of
transmitting voice.
    13.  The channel has a total capacity of
1 MB per second.
    14.  There are two types of channels with
Bluetooth - SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) and
ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless).
    15.  The SCO channels are time oriented, and
are therefore primarily used for transferring time
critical data such as voice.
    16.  ACL channels are normally used for
communicating data.
    17.  Data contained in a packet can be up to
2,745 bits in length.
    18.  In a single piconet, there can be up
to three SCO links containing 64,000 bits a second
each.
    19.  To avoid collision and timing problems,
SCO links are reserved slots that are set up by
the master.
    20.  The masters can support up to three
SCO links with either one, two, or three slaves.
    21.  The slots that aren't reserved for SCO
links can be used as ACL links.
    22.   The LMP (Link Management Protocol)
will handle link level security, error corrections,
and the establishment of communications links.
    23.  The LMP packets will have priority
over user packets that originate and form the
L2CAP layer.
    24.  The L2CAP layer will ensure an
acceptable quality of service.
    25.  No more than one ACL link can exist
at the L2CAP layer.



The Bluetooth Solution

The technology of Bluetooth will take small area
networking to the next level by removing the need
for user intervention and help keep transmission
power very low to preserve battery power.  Each
transmission signal to and from your cellular
phone will use just 1 mw of power, giving you
plenty of space on your battery to talk.

Bluetooth is a networking standard that will
work on two levels:
    1.  It will provide agreement at the
physical level, as Bluetooth is a radio frequency
standard.
    2.  It will provide agreement at the level
of protocol, where products will have to agree
on when bits are sent, how many are sent, and how
the parties in conversation can be sure the message
recieved is the same one that was sent.

The major draws to Bluetooth is the fact that
it's wireless, inexpensive, and automatic. There
are other ways to get around wires, including
infrared.  Infrared uses light waves of a lower
frequency than the human eye can, and is normally
used in television remote controls.

The technology of Bluetooth is intended to get
around the problems that normally come with
infrared systems.  The 1.0 older standard of
Bluetooth has a max transfer speed of 1 MB a
second, while the 2.0 Bluetooth standard can
manage up to 3.0 MB a second.  To make things
better, 2.0 is compatible with 1.0 devices.

As a solution to wireless, Bluetooth will
eliminate the need for messy cords, keeping
everything nice and neat.  It's perfect for those
who like to talk on cell phones, as you no
longer need to hold the phone next to your
ear - which is great for those who travel a
lot.



The Future Of Bluetooth

Because it meets the basic needs of connectivity in
close range, Bluetooth has a very bright future
ahead of it.  Bluetooth is actually the result of
initiatives from nine leading communications and
computer industry giants, including 3-COM, Sony,
Lucent, IBM, Nokia, Microsoft, etc.

Since the forming of the original group, more than
1,800 manufacturers around the world have joined
the initiative.  According to reports, the Bluetooth
technology is expected to be built into more than
100 million devices, with over 670 million enabled
Bluetooth devices.

Resulting from the amazing success of WAP (Wireless
Application Protocol), the adoption of smart phones
and hand held devices, Bluetooth can easily have
an amazing impact on your day to day life.  Bluetooth
is one of the key technologies that can help to
make the mobile information society happen, by
blurring the possibilities between home, the office,
and the outside world.

The seamless integration and connectivity that
Bluetooth promises will make it possible to explore
a wide range of interactive and highly transparent
personalized services which were actually quite
difficult to dream of simply because of the
complexity involved with making such devices
communicate with each other.

Many Bluetooth pilot products have already been
rolled into the market and backed by big vendors,
which is a healthy sign for the overall acceptance
of the technology.  The support for Bluetooth isn't
limited to companies that develop only Bluetooth
enabled products.

The applications for Bluetooth can have great
impacts on other industries as well.  The adoption
of Bluetooth technology is expected to spread
throughout the industry of computers. 

Unlike infrared technology, Bluetooth is used by
many different wireless devices.  Bluetooth offers
exceptional quality for short range wireless, even
going through walls and obstructions.  While
infrared is the biggest competitor at this time,
Bluetooth far surpasses it, proving to millions that
it is the wireless communication technology of the
present day and age.

In the beginning, Bluetooth started with version 1.0,
then gradually moved from there.  The current
version is 2.0+EDR, with another version currently
in development.  The technology behind the Bluetooth
specification always getting better and better,
which is why it's so popular.

In the future, you can expect the technology
behind Bluetooth to get better.  Bluetooth has
proven to be the wireless standard of the future,
offering you wireless connectability for hundreds
of different devices.  For cell phones or other forms
of wireless connections, Bluetooth is the one
technology that you don't want to find yourself
without.



Using Bluetooth

The amazing technology of Bluetooth presents a great
way of exchanging data between two wireless devices.
Unlike telephones, there are no wires or messy
leads to worry about.  You can enjoy wireless
communications with short distances of up to thirty
feet.

Bluetooth also offers interoperability, meaning that
you can use your portable Bluetooth device to connect
with existing Bluetooth points.  This way, you won't
have to carry a data lead or CDs of drivers around
with you everywhere you go.  You can enjoy the best
of wireless without having to worry about installing
your software.

With today's Bluetooth, you can use your PDA and cell
phone to surf the net or check emails as you travel.
If you are in the business field, this can be very
beneficial, especially if you like to check your
email throughout the day.  Bluetooth will enable you
to check your email no matter where you are - which
is great news for those who like to travel.

Bluetooth will also enable to you to transfer files
as well, such as MP3 and photo to and from your mobile
device.  Bluetooth dominates the world of short range
wireless, enabling you to do more than you may
have thought possible.

One of the best things to Bluetooth and something
everyone loves is the wireless headset.  Bluetooth
offers wire free headsets for your cell phone or
computer, which is great for those who like to walk
around or talk on the phone in the car, without
having to worry about your hands getting in the way.

To make things even better, you can use a Bluetooth
GPS device for satellite navigation on your PDA,
laptop, or mobile.  If you travel - this can be
really great to have.

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