METAPHYSICS – AN OVERVIEW :Consciousness, and the Existence of Emergent, Sensuous Qualities

girl train travel

Intensional Language and Intentional States:  Intensional contexts versus extensional contexts; the interchange of co-referential terms within extensional contexts as preserving truth-values; existential quantification, or "quantifying in", as permissible within extensional contexts; the relation of these two features to patterns of inference.
Consciousness and the Mental:  Is consciousness a mark of the mental?  Is it a sufficient condition of the mental?  Is it a necessary condition of the mental?
Intentionality and the Mental:  Is intentionality a mark of the mental?  Is it a sufficient condition of the mental?  Is it a necessary condition of the mental?  "That" clauses and two types of mental states.
Language, and the Question of the Source of Intentionality:  Is the intentionality of language more basic than the intentionality of the mental, or vice versa?   Is intentionality related to causal and/or dispositional properties?  The argument from purely physical systems - e.g., the case of the heat-seeking missile.
Topic VII.  Is Change Possible?
Important Arguments Against the Possibility of Change:  (1) Parmenides argument concerning being and non-being;  (2) Zeno’s four arguments:
(a) Achilles and the Tortoise;  (b) The Dichotomy;  (c) The Arrow;  (d) The Stadium;  (3) Benardete's "Serrated Continuum" versions of Zeno's paradox: (a) An infinite number of wall-building deities in T-shirts;  (b) The infinite sequence of deafening sounds; (c) The infinite pile of thinner and thinner slabs; (d) The book with thinner and thinner pages; (4) McTaggart's argument for the unreality of time.

Some Relevant Ideas:  (1) With regard to Parmenides' argument:  Does change require negative properties?  (2) With regard to Zeno's arguments:
(a) Infinite series that have finite sums;  (b) An action that has an infinite number of parts need not involve an infinite number of sub-actions, since one can intentionally will some outcome without separately willing each part of that outcome;  (c) If space or time is infinitely divisible, there will be no next location, or next moment;  (d) Infinite collections of things versus infinitely divisible things (Aristotle and actual infinities versus potential infinities); 
(e) Russell's analysis of motion as simply being in different locations at different times;  (f)  Fallacies involving switching the order of quantifiers. 
(3) With regard to Benardete's paradoxes:  (a) Causally sufficient conditions versus conditions that are actually efficacious;  (b) Causally sufficient conditions that are never actual.

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